Research has played an important role in nursing and has become one of the most successful ways to develop knowledge base into practice in enhancing the quality of care that nurses provide to patients (Potter & Perry, 2014). Nurses come across many ethical dilemmas which may make it difficult to morally decide on the correct action to take, but by understanding the ethical principles in theory and following professional guidelines with experience helps in making ethical decisions and ensure patients are receiving the care and treatment which is morally right (Potter & Perry, 2014). Therefore, it is important that researchers must be aware of the ethical standards to maintain an ethical outlook that respects the dignity and preserve the well-being of all research participants (Potter & Perry, 2014). Based on this ideology, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, & Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (2014) has put forth a research ethics board (REB) to scrutinize all research proposals and determine if they are following the ethical principles (Potter & Perry, 2014).
The Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS) has outlined three guiding ethical principles for human dignity in research involving humans’ participants, which include: Respect for persons, concern for welfare, and justice (Canadian Institutes of Health Research et al., 2014, p.6). Respect for persons requires the welfare and integrity of the participant to take precedence over the research study (Canadian Institutes of Health Research et al., 2014). The right for persons includes: Recognizing the obligation to respect the individual’s autonomy and the right to make informed decisions about study participation and ensured that dignity is valued to all participants including vulnerable people which are children, cognitive impaired, or people with mental health issues (Canadian Institutes of Health Research et al., 2014). Concern for welfare entails researchers to protect and promote the welfare of participants from bodily to mental and spiritual well-being and ensures that participants are not in any risks (Canadian Institutes of Health Research et al., 2014). And lastly, justice which reflects the importance of treating people equal with respect and concern, as well as distributing the benefits and burdens of research participation equally so that no participants is cheated or discriminated to the benefits of research (Canadian Institutes of Health Research et al., 2014).
This ethnography of qualitative study will consist of participants in a face-to-face interview of a household with a nationality from Ghana or persons who self-identified as a Ghanaian-Canadian immigrant. The exclusion criteria will include anyone born in Canada with no Ghanaian descent and ages below 18 years, Ghanaian immigrants who have resided in Canada past 5 years, and individuals who do not live in Toronto, Ont. In recruiting for participants, a purpose sampling of forty people including both males and females ages 18 and older will be used to recruit participants by going to social-settings such as Ghanaian churches or cultural events to ask for their contribution to the study. Participants will be provided an adequate information regarding the research, process the information and be given the power of free choice to decide if they will participate in the study or not. A well written signed consent will include: the purpose of the study, expectations of participants, the potential risks or benefits and the voluntarily signature of participants will be obtained prior to starting the study. A promise of confidentiality will be ensured to participants by using only initials, all information obtained will be securely stored on a computer with password and information will only be accessible to individuals who are involved in the research. To ensure justice for all participants, the study will be fair throughout. For instance, there will be a non-discriminatory selection of participants, no ill attitude towards individuals who refuse to participate or withdrawing from the study, and moments of debriefing will be provided whenever necessary to ensure clarity to participants. In doing this, it will allow for all individuals to feel equal and free to participate and not be coerced into the study.
This study will contribute to the knowledge base in practice and assist health-care professions in providing culturally competent care and be aware of this community’s values and belief’s concerning mental health. Although, there are many studies of mental health on immigrants and mental health (Guruge, Thomson, George, and Chaze, 2015; Han, Han, Luo, Jacobs, & Jean-Baptiste, 2013; Robert, & Gilkinson, 2012; Thomson, Chaze, George & Guruge, 2015). There is a dearth of literature on the Ghanaian community’s issues with mental health and requires to be addressed. Therefore, this research is to provide a better understanding of the origin of cultural background’s values and beliefs of mental health functioning in the Ghanaian-Canadian community. As well as providing a good foundation and culturally sensitive context for health care professionals in providing culturally competent care to this community by being aware of their values and beliefs concerning mental health (Guruge et al., 2015; Thomas et al., 2015).
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. (December 2014). Tri-Council policy statement: Ethical conduct for research involving humans.Retrieved from http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/pdf/eng/tcps2-2014/TCPS_2_FINAL_Web.pdf
Guruge, S., Thomson, M., Geroge, U., Chaze, F. (2015). Social support, social conflict, and immigrant women’s mental health in a Canadian context: a scoping review. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing. 22(1), 655-667.
Han, X., Han, X., Luo, Q., Jacobs, S., & Jean-Baptiste, M. (2013). Report of a mental health survey among Chinese international students at Yale University. Journal of American College Health, 61(1), 1-8.
Robert, AM. & Gilkinson, T. (2012). Mental health and well-being of recent immigrants in Canada: Evidence from the Longitudinal survey of Immigrants to Canada. Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 1-27
Potter, P.A., & Perry, A. G., Stockert, P. A., & Hall, A. M. (2014). Canadian Fundamentals of Nursing (5th Ed.). (pp. 254, 266). Toronto, ON: Elsevier Canada
Thomson, M., Chaze, F., George, U., & Guruge, S. (2015). Improving immigrant populations’ access to mental health services in canada: A review of barriers and recommendations. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 17(6), 1895-1905. doi:10.1007/s10903-015-0175-3